Friday, April 22, 2011

IB Biology on Microbes and Bacteria Option F

IB Biology on Microbes, Sources of energy and Carbon
Types of bacteria
Click HERE to get in
Photo taken from
http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/MicrobeWiki
Photo from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoheterotroph
Keywords are 
Energy source, Carbon source, Photoautotroph, Chemoautotroph,, Photoheterotroph, Chemoheterotroph
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Photoautotrophs
Energy from light, Carbon source from inorganic substances (CO2), Producers,
Sulfur/purple green bacteria (H2S as reducing agent) and blue green algae ,cyanobacteria (H2O as reducing agent)
Click  MicrobeWIKI for more  infomation
Cyanobacteria
Anabaena is a filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, found as plankton. Known for its nitrogen fixing abilities, and they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants
Cyanobacteria is an Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria
Picture taken from
http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/kingdoms-living-world/cyanobacteria.php
Cynanobacteria  is believe to be the main origin of Chloroplast found in plant.


Chloroplast (Eukaryotes) comes from Cyanobacteria ( Bacteria)  based on Endosymbiotic Theory


Video on Cyanobacteria shaping our world in producing oxygen . 
Adaptation, Evolution , Endosymbiotic Theory, Cyanobacteria from Sea, Land now found in Plant

Click HERE to get in to animation on Endosymbiotic Theory
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Chemoautotroph
Energy(ATP) from chemical reaction( hydogen sulfide, iron, ammonia and nitrite), Carbon source from inorganic subtances ( CO2 )
Nitrosomonas ( oxidises ammonia to nitrite to get energy), 
Nitrobacter (oxidises nitrite to nitrate to get energy)
picture taken from
http://copepodo.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/reforma-en-el-acuario-4-ciclo-del-nitrogeno/
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Photoheterotroph
Energy(ATP) from Light, Not capable of reducing CO, Carbon source from organisms,
Purple non sulfur bacteria (purple bacteria) are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is capable of producing energy through photosynthesis. Pigmented with bacteriochlorophyll a or b, together with various carotenoids. These give them colours ranging between purple, red, brown, and orange. Do not produce oxygen because the reducing agent ,electron donor  involved in photosynthesis is not water. In some, calledpurple sulfur bacteria Purple non-sulfur bacteria uses hydrogen.
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Chemoheterotroph
Saprotrophic or decomposers
Energy(ATP) from chemical reaction, Carbon source  from organisms, 2 method of energy production ( respiration and fermentation), Fermenters are anaerobic, Many organic compound like alcohol, hydrocarbon, cellulose can be metabolised by chemoheterotrophs.
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Click HERE to get into Origin of Life
Archaea Bacteria
  • Halophiles live in salt condition
  • Thermophiles in hot spring and thermal vent
  • Methanogens live in anaerobic where organic matter is available.
Video on Thermophiles bacteria oxides inorganic substances like H2S to get energy in deep sea


Video on Methanogens in Biogas Production

How Biogas Works from Nathan Ranney on Vimeo.
Usefulness of Bacteria in Bioremediation
Keywords are
Breakdown of pollutants to harmless substances, removing pollutants, oxidise it, degrade, breakdown contaminants.
  • oil spill/hydrocarbon broken down by microbes
  • selenium ions/toxic is oxidised by bacteria to insoluble selenium metal/less toxic
  • pesticides or chlorinated solvent pollution removed by bacteria
Click HERE to get in
Video on removal of oil spill by bacteria


Methane gas was consumed by bacteria during the BP Oil Spill in 20 April 2010( worst oil spill)
Click HERE to see how microbes ( methanogens) consume the methane gas released

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