Sunday, April 24, 2011

IB Biology on Microbes and Bacteria Option F

IB Biology on Microbes, Nitrogen Cycle, Gram Staining and Haber Process.

Picture taken from
Bacteria Involved in Nitrogen Cycle 
picture from
Keywords are 
Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrification, Denitrification, Ammonification, Nitrites, Nitrates, 

Microbes Involved
  • Nitrogen Fixing bacteria, Azotobacter and Rhizobium ( mutualistically ) in root nodules in legume plts Convert Nitrogen to Ammonia
  • Nitrifying Bacteria, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter (aeration) needed. Nitrosomonas convert Ammonia to Nitrites, Nitrobacter convert Nitrites to Nitrates
  • Denitrifying Bacteria, Pseudomonas ( anaerobic ) convert Nitrates to Nitrogen
Microbes make Ammonia (Naturally) Vs  Haber Process Ammonia Production (Industry)
Do you know..........
Ammonia Plant in Korea ( Ulsan ), Fritz Haber Father of Chemical Warfare, Nobel Prize Chemistry, Haber Process is Link to World War I and Ammonia used to make BOMB

Fritz Haber awarded Nobel Prize for his contribution in Chemistry in the production of ammonia which is crucial in making fertilisers.
Click HERE if you want to know more about Haber

Ammonia Production in Korea

Excess nitrate and phosphate ions leached from soil due to over use of fertilisers causes 
( Fertiliser have NPK content ). What does it means to have 20:20:20 NPK content?
1. Eutrophication leads to algal bloom, overuse/depletion of oxygen cause hypoxia/deoxygenation, kills fish due to low oxygen level.
2. BOD up. Bacteria decomposes dead algae, increase in BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) High BOD will decrease the dissolve oxygen concentration in water.

Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
Keywords are
Lipid layer, Differences, Lysozymes protection, Porins, Stain with Violet, Peptidoglycans, Ethanol, Safranin, Thick and thin, Which bacteria is more dangerous?
Gram staining is done by using crytal violet, iodine, ethanol, safranin and cell wall will be stained purple or pink depending on the cell structure. 

Keywords are
Peptidoglycan, Gram Positive, Gram Negative, LPS, Eubacteria, 
Gram Postive (thick wall) will be purple/violet
Gram Negative (thin wall/LPS) will be pink
Gram Staining in YouTube

Gram Staining Explained in Detail

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