IB Biology on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells made by inducing Somatic Adult Cells into Embryonic Stem Cells (by inserting 4 genes using retrovirus)Picture taken from
Induced pluripotent stem cells were first generated by Shinya Yamanaka's team at Kyoto University, Japan in 2006. Yamanaka used genes that had been identified as particularly important in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and used retroviruses to transduce mouse fibroblasts with a selection of those genes. Eventually, 4 key pluripotency genes essential for the production of pluripotent stem cells were isolated; Oct-3/4, SOX2, c-Myc, and Klf4.Source taken from
Embryonic Stem Cells Vs Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS)Benefits of IPS Cells
- No embryos needed
- Making stem cells from normal adult/somatic cells
- Causes cancer as genes introduced using retrovirus( viral transfection) may cause tumor
- Low yield of stem cells, time consuming and highly unpredictable
Named as Method of Year 2009 ( Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells )
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Explained
Timeline, Stem Cell/Induced pluripotent Stem Cells by SciDaily
ScienceDaily (Feb. 12, 2007) — For cells that hold so much promise, stem cells' potential has so far gone largely untapped. But new research from Rockefeller University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute scientists now shows that adult stem cells taken from skin can be used to clone mice using a procedure called nuclear transfer.
ScienceDaily (Oct. 9, 2010) — Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have shown how stem cells, together with other cells, repair damaged tissue in the mouse spinal cord.
ScienceDaily (Feb. 28, 2011) — According to new research published online in The FASEB Journal, scientists have successfully fused human stem cells derived from subcutaneous adipose (fat) tissue with muscle cells from rat hearts.
ScienceDaily (Mar. 7, 2011) — "Pluripotent" stem cells -- which have the potential to mature into almost any cell in the body -- are being widely studied for their role in treating a vast array of human diseases and for generating cells and tissues for transplantation.
ScienceDaily (Apr. 7, 2011) — People who use in vitro fertilization to conceive children often have leftover embryos and must decide whether to store them, dispose of them or possibly donate them for research.
ScienceDaily (Apr. 10, 2011) — Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have devised a totally new and far more efficient way of generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), immature cells that are able to develop into several different types of cells or tissues in the bodyNews from Stem Cell Research by Medical News
In two papers published on April 25 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sheng Ding, PhD, reveals novel and safer methods not only for transforming embryonic stem cells into large numbers of brain cells with multiple uses, but also for transforming adult skin cells into so-called neural stem cells
................Click HERE to continue on Cloning using iPSC..............................