Thursday, April 7, 2011

IB Chemistry in Medicine and Drugs Option D

IB Chemistry on Medicine, Drugs, Aspirin, Analgesic , Option D
Miracle Drug, Aspirin
Analgesic drugs like Aspirin, salicylate drug acts on nervous systems to relieve pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever and an anti-inflammatory.
Aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid ) made from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. 

Active ingredient from Willow Bark ( Salicylic acid ), very acidic due to OH group of phenol. Adding acetyl group changes it to Aspirin (less acidic).
1897---Aspirin synthesized by Felix Hoffmann, at Bayer.
1899-- Aspirin marketed by Bayer.
1900---First water-soluble Aspirin by Bayer.
1915---Aspirin available without prescription.
Video on History, Discovery and Nobel Prize on Aspirin 


1960---Craven's discovered Aspirin prevent platelet aggregation ( prevent blood clot )


1970---Professor Vane discovered aspirin blocks an (COX) enzyme needed for production of  hormones (prostaglandins). 


1982---Professor Vane awarded Nobel Prize, How Aspirin acts by blocking the formation of prostaglandins, giving anti inflammatory/anti pyretic and anti platelet properties.










Video on How aspirin works
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                        How Aspirin Works
Aspirin decrease production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes by inhibiting (COX) enzyme. Works by acetylating ( adding acetyl group ) to a serine residue on active site of the (COX) enzyme.
Aspirin inhibits COX enzyme, prostaglandins (hormone) decreases thus prevent inflammation,heart attack stroke and blood clot.
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Good and Bad side of Aspirin from CNN
Good side
Aspirin before air travel decrease risk of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), prevent inflammation, reduce fever, heart attacksstrokes, and blood clot.
Bad side
Aspirin increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, bleeding due to its acidity



Latest discovery on Aspirin from Telegraph and Lancet
Aspirin prevent Cancer and Heart diseaseTaking a quarter of an aspirin with milk before bed could reduce your chance of dying in middle age by a tenth, the biggest study into the drug has found.25,570 patients on drug for average 4 years. Reduced Prostate Cancer  by 10%, Lung Cancer 30%, Bowel Cancer 40%, Throat Cancer  60%.Longer you take aspirin, the greater the benefit, risks ( stomach bleeding) is "trivial" compared with the benefits. More research is required before clear conclusions can be drawn on the implications for clinical practice.
    Sources from
    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/8184776/Aspirin-the-wonder-drug-fights-off-cancer-as-well-as-heart-disease.html
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    Published in Lancet (2011),  Aspirin could save thousands of lives a year from cancer alone.
    Sources from
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(10)62110-1/abstract
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    IB Exam Questions on Option D

    Answer for Option D....................


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