Monday, May 2, 2011

IB Chemistry, IB Biology on catalyst and Nuclear Energy

IB Chemistry and Biology on Catalyst and Energy Crisis
Catalyst speeds up a reaction by providing an alternative pathway with lower activation energy.
( Bond Making and Forming Easier)


Heterogenous catalyst is when the reactants and catalyst are in different phase.
(Solid catalyst with gaseous reactants )
Gaseous reactants will adsorbed on the catalyst surface for reaction to occur


Catalyst for IB Level
N2(g) + 3H2(g) <=> 2NH3(g) (iron)


C2H2(g)  + 3H2(g) <==> C2H6(g)( nickel)


2SO2(g) + O2(g) <==> 2SO3(g) ( vanadium pentoxide )

picture taken from
http://www.vscht.cz/monolith/projects.html
Keywords are
Lower Activation Energy, Bond breaking and bond making easier, Molecules adsorbed on catalyst surface. Adsorption is temporary attached on surface catalyst so bond making/breaking happens easily.


The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded jointly to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis".

Palladium a MAGIC CATALYST whereby reactants will adsorb temporary on the surface of catalyst ( active site ) bring them in closer contact with each other and corect orientation so bonds will break and formed easily with very low activation energy.


If they dont adsorb on catalyst surface bond making /forming will not happen cause there is high activation energy



picture taken from
http://www.kva.se/en/Prizes/Nobel-prizes/
Nobel Prize 2010 Chemistry Palladium Catalyst


Cold Fusion uses Palladium Catalyst to fuse the nuclei together.
From Times.com, Click HERE to get in
"On March 23, 1989, two chemists at the University of Utah, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced that they had discovered a technique for creating cold fusion using deuterium.
That was surprising enough, but they also claimed to have done it with inexpensive equipment that could be found in most high school chemistry classes. It caused a big stir in the media and in science circles, but months and years passed without the promised cold fusion."
Just need a simple Electrolysis Set up, Heavy Water ( Deuterium oxide ) and Palladium catalyst to perform Nuclear Fusion in a Chemistry Lab.


Click HERE to get into 60 mins
He showed 60 Minutes just how simple the experiment looks; there are only three main ingredients. First, there is palladium, a metal in the platinum family. Second, one needs a kind of hydrogen called deuterium which is found in seawater.
"Deuterium is essentially unlimited. There is ten times as much energy in a gallon of sea water, from the deuterium contained within it, than there is in a gallon of gasoline," he explained.
The palladium is placed in water containing deuterium and the third ingredient is an electric current. 
Experiment is so simple.
Just need palladium, Heavy water (Deuterium oxide) and set up electrolysis you will get excess energy which is released due to nuclear fusion.

Cold fusion done in Lab with less than $1,000 while $10 Billion euros are spent on hot Fusion
Picture taken from
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/04/17/60minutes/main4952167.shtml

Is it possible or is it illusion or Junk Science

Scientists are unable to reproduce the expt due to the lack of understanding of how the catalyst palladium works. With time and in depth understanding on the mechanism of surface catalyst reaction of palladium, we hope cold fusion will happen and if it happens, that is true Science at its best.


We are approaching 9 billion in population ( 2045 )
We are polluting and emitting CO2, causing Global Warming and Climate Change
We are running out of Fossil Fuel ( Energy Crisis )
We are attack by new virus strain( H5N1 ) and bacteria resistant strains
We are running out of clean water and rising food prices to feed the poor
The list go on............


We need great Scientists, Visionaries and Great minds in coming years to solve these problems to ensure our survival.........


Next Posting will be on Synthetic Cell to Save the World and End All our Problems Listed Above.....


I believe DNA Technology and Genetic Engineering will be the way to solve the problems Above......
Let's pray and remain be resilient in our quest to make this world a better place for our future generation......


 Click HERE to continue

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