Tuesday, June 28, 2011

IB Chemistry, Stimulants, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Ecstasy, Medicine Drugs Option D

IB Chemistry on Stimulants, Epinephrine, Neurotransmitters 
Serotonin, Dopamine, Epinephrine and Norepinephrine 

Neurotransmitter with Phenyethylamine structure
  • Serotonin - Neurotransmitter
  • Dopamine - Neurotransmitter
  • Epinephrine - Neurotransmitter/Hormone
  • Norepinephrine - Neurotransmitter/Hormone






Hormone with Phenyethylamine structure

source:http://physrev.physiology.org/content/89/2/535.full


Sympathomimetic drugs are substances 

Stimulants with Phenylethylamine structure

  • Amphetamine
  • Methamphetamine (Speed)
  • MDMA (Ecstasy)

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Amphetamine and Methamphetamine
Amphetamine stimulant drug with phenethylamine structure.
Methamphetamine known as (Meth, Ice, Speed), potent stimulant of central nervous system  
Both are similar in their action:
How Amphetamine/Methamphetamine works
Click HERE for animation 
  • Amphetamine -  stimulant
  • Dopamine - neurotransmitter
  • Both similar in structure
  • Amphetamine block the dopamine reuptake pump
  • Cannot be taken in again from synapse, level of dopamine in synapse increases 
  • Amphetamine also causes storage vesicles to release dopamine into synapse
  • Causing dopamine level up, increase in heart beat, blood pressure, alertness, focus

Methamphetamine Structure and its Medical uses
  • Add methy gp to Amphetamine 
  • One chiral center, with 2 isomers (R) or (S). 
  • (S) Meth (Stimulant) to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, fatigue, obesity
  • (R) Meth is used in nasal congestion


Uses of Methamphetamine

How R Meth(legal) and S Meth(illegal) works
Vicks VapoRub® Inhaler -50 mgs of the (R) Meth
  • Works by constricting blood vessels in nasal, reduce flow, reduce inflammation and swelling

  • (S) Meth, illegal and causes intense euphoria and pleasure
  • Works by inducing dopamine rush into brain synapse 







Meth, one of the most dangerous stimulant in the world 
Click HERE to view video by National Geog
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Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) known as 

Click HERE for more info

  • Ecstasy, similar in structure with dopamine/serotonin
  • Phenylethylamine structure
  • Inhibit serotonin/dopamine reuptake pump



How Ecstasy works
  • Blocks reuptake pump
  • Serotonin/Dopamine level increases
  • Stimulate more release of serotonin into synapse
  • Causes euphoria, mental relaxation, alertness


    Click HERE to view animation 
    Video, How Ecstasy affect Serotonin level
    IB keywords
    Amphetamine/Methamphetamine
    Medical Uses and physiological effects
    • Treating depression - increasing dopamine/serotonin level
    • Narcolepsy/insomia (increase alertness)
    • Nasal congestion( vasoconstriction ) and asthma ( bronchodilation)
    • Cardiac arrest/ low blood pressure - ( increasing heart beat and blood pressure )
    • Obesity - ( increasing metabolic rate, lipolysis )
    Medical uses of MDMA 
    Risks/side effects using Stimulants.
    • Increase heart rate/blood pressure - cardiovascular problems
    • Addiction, tolerance, withdrawal (emotional instability)
    • Weight loss, hallucination, dilation of pupils 
    • Overdose may lead to death






    Video, UK's 20 most Dangerous Drugs.Truth about Ecstacy

    Keywords from BBC Video (Ecstasy 18th place)
    • 1912 - Introduce to control bleeding
    • 1970 - Used as recreational drugs in dance 
    • Causes Serotonin rush -  for mood, memory, feeling of euphoria
    • Why only 18th? 
    • No cognitive impairment. Brain damaged on rats and monkeys, cannot make generalisation
    • All drugs are harmful to certain extend, must weigh benefits against side effects
    Video on 20 UK's most dangerous drugs by BBC. Good Video!!!
    Click HERE to view video and HERE to view list of 20 drugs

    ABC drug classification system is arbitrary and not based on any scientific evidence. Drug policies have remained unchanged over the last 40 years so should they be reformed in the light of new research ........by BBC Two





    Drug classification in UK. Click HERE to view
    • Ecstasy as Therapy: Have Some of its Negative Effects Been Overblown by Healthland.time. Click HERE to view
    • Ecstasy Shows Promise in Relieving Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Journal of Psychopharmacology. Click HERE to view
    • Little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in ecstasy users by Journal Addition. Click HERE to view
    Video tutorial IB Chemistry Option D Stimulants
    IB Chemistry, Stimulants, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Ecstasy, Medicine Drugs Option D
     
    In short :
    All drugs have side effects and comes with its risks and benefits. Consult medical doctor first!
    Thanks to all pictures and video contributors for the above post

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