Tuesday, June 28, 2011

IB Chemistry, Stimulants, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Ecstasy, Medicine Drugs Option D

IB Chemistry on Stimulants, Epinephrine, Neurotransmitters 
Serotonin, Dopamine, Epinephrine and Norepinephrine 

Neurotransmitter with Phenyethylamine structure
  • Serotonin - Neurotransmitter
  • Dopamine - Neurotransmitter
  • Epinephrine - Neurotransmitter/Hormone
  • Norepinephrine - Neurotransmitter/Hormone






Hormone with Phenyethylamine structure

source:http://physrev.physiology.org/content/89/2/535.full


Sympathomimetic drugs are substances 

Stimulants with Phenylethylamine structure

  • Amphetamine
  • Methamphetamine (Speed)
  • MDMA (Ecstasy)

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Amphetamine and Methamphetamine
Amphetamine stimulant drug with phenethylamine structure.
Methamphetamine known as (Meth, Ice, Speed), potent stimulant of central nervous system  
Both are similar in their action:
How Amphetamine/Methamphetamine works
Click HERE for animation 
  • Amphetamine -  stimulant
  • Dopamine - neurotransmitter
  • Both similar in structure
  • Amphetamine block the dopamine reuptake pump
  • Cannot be taken in again from synapse, level of dopamine in synapse increases 
  • Amphetamine also causes storage vesicles to release dopamine into synapse
  • Causing dopamine level up, increase in heart beat, blood pressure, alertness, focus

Methamphetamine Structure and its Medical uses
  • Add methy gp to Amphetamine 
  • One chiral center, with 2 isomers (R) or (S). 
  • (S) Meth (Stimulant) to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, fatigue, obesity
  • (R) Meth is used in nasal congestion


Uses of Methamphetamine

How R Meth(legal) and S Meth(illegal) works
Vicks VapoRub® Inhaler -50 mgs of the (R) Meth
  • Works by constricting blood vessels in nasal, reduce flow, reduce inflammation and swelling

  • (S) Meth, illegal and causes intense euphoria and pleasure
  • Works by inducing dopamine rush into brain synapse 







Meth, one of the most dangerous stimulant in the world 
Click HERE to view video by National Geog
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Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) known as 

Click HERE for more info

  • Ecstasy, similar in structure with dopamine/serotonin
  • Phenylethylamine structure
  • Inhibit serotonin/dopamine reuptake pump



How Ecstasy works
  • Blocks reuptake pump
  • Serotonin/Dopamine level increases
  • Stimulate more release of serotonin into synapse
  • Causes euphoria, mental relaxation, alertness


    Click HERE to view animation 
    Video, How Ecstasy affect Serotonin level
    IB keywords
    Amphetamine/Methamphetamine
    Medical Uses and physiological effects
    • Treating depression - increasing dopamine/serotonin level
    • Narcolepsy/insomia (increase alertness)
    • Nasal congestion( vasoconstriction ) and asthma ( bronchodilation)
    • Cardiac arrest/ low blood pressure - ( increasing heart beat and blood pressure )
    • Obesity - ( increasing metabolic rate, lipolysis )
    Medical uses of MDMA 
    Risks/side effects using Stimulants.
    • Increase heart rate/blood pressure - cardiovascular problems
    • Addiction, tolerance, withdrawal (emotional instability)
    • Weight loss, hallucination, dilation of pupils 
    • Overdose may lead to death






    Video, UK's 20 most Dangerous Drugs.Truth about Ecstacy

    Keywords from BBC Video (Ecstasy 18th place)
    • 1912 - Introduce to control bleeding
    • 1970 - Used as recreational drugs in dance 
    • Causes Serotonin rush -  for mood, memory, feeling of euphoria
    • Why only 18th? 
    • No cognitive impairment. Brain damaged on rats and monkeys, cannot make generalisation
    • All drugs are harmful to certain extend, must weigh benefits against side effects
    Video on 20 UK's most dangerous drugs by BBC. Good Video!!!
    Click HERE to view video and HERE to view list of 20 drugs

    ABC drug classification system is arbitrary and not based on any scientific evidence. Drug policies have remained unchanged over the last 40 years so should they be reformed in the light of new research ........by BBC Two





    Drug classification in UK. Click HERE to view
    • Ecstasy as Therapy: Have Some of its Negative Effects Been Overblown by Healthland.time. Click HERE to view
    • Ecstasy Shows Promise in Relieving Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Journal of Psychopharmacology. Click HERE to view
    • Little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in ecstasy users by Journal Addition. Click HERE to view
    Video tutorial IB Chemistry Option D Stimulants
    IB Chemistry, Stimulants, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Ecstasy, Medicine Drugs Option D
     
    In short :
    All drugs have side effects and comes with its risks and benefits. Consult medical doctor first!
    Thanks to all pictures and video contributors for the above post

    Saturday, June 25, 2011

    IB Chemistry, Stereoisomerism, Optical isomers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, Amphetamine in Organic Chemistry

    Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine in Medicine Drugs Option D
    Stereoisomerism are isomers with same Molecular Formula + Structural Formula but different in spatial arrangement ( different 3 Dimensional shapes )

    Optical Isomers (ORGANIC)
    • Chiral or Asymmetrical Carbon 
    • 4 different gps attached to carbon central
    • Non superimposable
    • Mirror image ( right, left handed )
    • Enantiomers - stereoisomers are mirror image to each other
    • Identical chemical/physical properties 
    • Enantiomers rotate plane of polarised light to diff directions
    .......................................................................................................................................................
    Optical Isomers.(Stereoisomers)
    1st - Thalidomide, 2nd - Methamphetamine, 3rd - Ephedrine
      1st Optical isomers - (Thalidomide) 
      Thalidomide drug exist as optical isomers, 
      • Enantiomers (R) and (S)
      • (R) effective against  insomnia and morning sickness
      • (S) teratogenic, birth and limb defect





      In nature, our body synthesises enzyme which have active site for only one enantiomer
      • Drug company, synthesise racemic mix (R)/(S) which is cheaper.
      • (R) is effective but (S) has side effect.
      • Enzyme recognises only one enantiomer due to active site


      Mirror image of thalidomide caused limb deformation
      • (S) enantiomer causes limb defects and severe shortening of the arms /legs.
      • (R) enantiomer is effective drug
      • Body will convert (R) to (S) by racemisation process, producing a racemic mixture (R)/(S)
      ....................................................................................................................................................
      2nd Optical Isomer - Methamphetamine
      Methamphetamine known as (Meth, Ice, Speed) is a potent stimulant of central nervous system  
      Meth Structure and its Medical uses
      • Add methy gp to Amphetamine 
      • One chiral center, with 2 isomers R/L or S/D. 
      • (S) isomer (Stimulant) to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, fatigue, obesity
      • (R) isomer  is used in nasal congestion
      source:http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/methamphetamine/methv.htm



      Optical isomers of Methamphetamine
      • Notation for optical isomer R/L or S/D
      • One chiral center, 2 optical isomers 
      • (R) isomer, legal (over-the-counter drug) used in inhalers for nasal decongestion
      • (S) isomer, illegal, stimulant known as speed (designer drug)
      source:http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/methamphetamine/methv.htm

      How R (legal) and S (illegal) isomer works
      Vicks VapoRub® Inhaler -50 mgs of the (R) isomer 
      • Works by constricting blood vessels in nasal, reduce flow, reduce inflammation and swelling

      • (S) isomer, illegal and causes intense euphoria and pleasure
      • Works by inducing dopamine rush into brain synapse (Structurally similar with dopamine)
      source:http://hhic.org/_cmx/cmx_article/articleView.asp?ArticleID=110



      Winter Olympics
      • Salt Lake City Olympics 2002, Alain Baxter made British history, winning a medal (Bronze).
      • Unfortunately, tested positive for the banned stimulant methamphetamine 
      • Claimed to use Vicks nasal inhaler, (R methamphetamine isomer)
      • S methamphetamine isomer is a banned drug
      • Was cleared by IOC after investigation
      • Lose a medal because of Vicks nasal inhaler (R isomer)!!!!
      Click HERE for source and full story
      ......................................................................................................................................................
      3rd Optical Isomer - Ephedrine

      Similar Structure - Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Ephedrine
      Ephedrine Structure
      • Epinephine has 2 chiral center - 4 stereoisomers
      • Meth has 1 chiral center - 2 stereoisomers
      • Alkaloids (nitrogen attached), sec amine gp
      • Difference bet Meth and Ephedrine - OH gp
      • Ephedrine acts as stimulants like Meth




       4 stereoisomers, Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine
      • All 4 optical isomers have similar properties
      • (1R,2S) Ephedrine and (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine are believed to be more potent than the rest
      • (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine used as a nasal decongestant and cold/flu tablet
      • (1R,2S) Ephedrine used for weight control - stimulate metabolic( thermogenesis ) and burning of fat
      • All acts as stimulant similar to Meth
      • They are called diastereomers (Not in IB)

      source:http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/chem4400/sjbr/carlson03.htm


      Medical uses of (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine Optical isomer

      • Nurofen contain (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine
      • (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine used as a nasal decongestant and cold/flu tablet
      • Works by constricting blood vessel in nasal, reduce blood flow, inflammation and swelling
      source:http://www.nurofen.co.uk/products.php
      • Sudafed contain (1S,2S) Pseudoephedrine for nasal decongestion
      • Works the same as above





      Medical uses of (1R,2S) Ephedrine isomer
      • Weight loss and diet
      • Ephedrine increases metabolic rate and stimulate lipolysis/glycogenolysis




      Side effect of Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine
      • Main health concern, acts as stimulant( blood vasoconstrictor) - Increase heart rate and blood pressure, may causing cardiovascular problems.
      • Many side effects, pls consult medical doctor
      • Easily available as flu/cold medication and subject to abuse (control item in some countries)
      • Benefits should be carefully weighed against side effects
      • Benefits and side effects. Click HERE to view
      .........................................................................................................................................................
      World Anti Doping Agency on Stimulants use in sports
      • List of Banned drugs (effect 1 Jan 2011)
      • Stimulants both optical isomers are banned 
      • Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine banned but allow to certain amt. Pseuso( <150ug/ml) Ephedrine (<10ug/ml) 
      • R Meth banned but if you use S Meth (inhaler), or consume Pseudo/Ephedrine(cold/flu) medication before competition, you may lose a medal. Consult medical expert first!
      Click HERE to view list banned items by World Anti Doping Agency
      .........................................................................................................................................................

      Why it is so easy to make Meth at home?
      Meth made from Pseudo/Ephedrine (easily available from pharmacy as Sudafed Pills)
      • Reduce OH on Ephedrine to H on Meth
      • Reducing agent 
      • Basic Chem 101 knowledge to make Meth
      • Will not elaborate on it as it is illegal
      Basic Household Ingredients 
      • Ephedrine source from pharmacy
      • Solvent
      • HCI
      • Lithium batteries 
      • Ammonia
      • Iodine
      • Phosphorus from matchbox
      • Chem 101 knowledge


      Meth abuse if there is no control on certain drugs prescription
      .....................................................................................................................................................
      Tutorial on Stereoisomers, Stimulants and Methamphetamine
      Faces of Meth users and our deepest sympathies to lost souls. 

      Faces of Meth - The best free videos are right here
      In short :
      Never touch Meth as it will destroy your life, families body and soul.....
      All you need to know about Meth, (video + animation+ victims). Click HERE to view
      Thanks to all pictures and video contributors for the above post
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